Robber fly - Nature photographer Thomas Shahan specializes in amazing portraits of tiny insects. It isn't easy. Shahan says that this Robber Fly (Holcocephala fusca), for instance, is "skittish" and doesn't like its picture taken.

Eye-popping bug photos

Nature by Numbers (Video)

"A Summary" – Apr 2, 2011 (Kryon channeled by Lee Carroll) (Subjects: Religion, Shift of Human Consciousness, 2012, Intelligent/Benevolent Design, EU, South America, 5 Currencies, Water Cycle (Heat up, Mini Ice Ace, Oceans, Fish, Earthquakes ..), Middle East, Internet, Israel, Dictators, Palestine, US, Japan (Quake/Tsunami Disasters , People, Society ...), Nuclear Power Revealed, Hydro Power, Geothermal Power, Moon, Financial Institutes (Recession, Realign integrity values ..) , China, North Korea, Global Unity,..... etc.) -
"The Quantum Factor" – Apr 10, 2011 (Kryon channeled by Lee Carroll) (Subjects: Galaxies, Universe, Intelligent design, Benevolent design, Aliens, Nikola Tesla (Quantum energy), Inter-Planetary Travel, DNA, Genes, Stem Cells, Cells, Rejuvenation, Shift of Human Consciousness, Spontaneous Remission, Religion, Dictators, Africa, China, Nuclear Power, Sustainable Development, Animals, Global Unity.. etc.) - (Text Version)

“ … Here is another one. A change in what Human nature will allow for government. "Careful, Kryon, don't talk about politics. You'll get in trouble." I won't get in trouble. I'm going to tell you to watch for leadership that cares about you. "You mean politics is going to change?" It already has. It's beginning. Watch for it. You're going to see a total phase-out of old energy dictatorships eventually. The potential is that you're going to see that before 2013.

They're going to fall over, you know, because the energy of the population will not sustain an old energy leader ..."

(Live Kryon Channelings was given 7 times within the United Nations building.)

"Update on Current Events" – Jul 23, 2011 (Kryon channelled by Lee Carroll) - (Subjects: The Humanization of God, Gaia, Shift of Human Consciousness, 2012, Benevolent Design, Financial Institutes (Recession, System to Change ...), Water Cycle (Heat up, Mini Ice Ace, Oceans, Fish, Earthquakes ..), Nuclear Power Revealed, Geothermal Power, Hydro Power, Drinking Water from Seawater, No need for Oil as Much, Middle East in Peace, Persia/Iran Uprising, Muhammad, Israel, DNA, Two Dictators to fall soon, Africa, China, (Old) Souls, Species to go, Whales to Humans, Global Unity,..... etc.)

"Recalibration of Free Choice"– Mar 3, 2012 (Kryon Channelling by Lee Caroll) - (Subjects: (Old) Souls, Midpoint on 21-12-2012, Shift of Human Consciousness, Black & White vs. Color, 1 - Spirituality (Religions) shifting, Loose a Pope “soon”, 2 - Humans will change react to drama, 3 - Civilizations/Population on Earth, 4 - Alternate energy sources (Geothermal, Tidal (Paddle wheels), Wind), 5 – Financials Institutes/concepts will change (Integrity – Ethical) , 6 - News/Media/TV to change, 7 – Big Pharmaceutical company will collapse “soon”, (Keep people sick), (Integrity – Ethical) 8 – Wars will be over on Earth, Global Unity, … etc.) - (Text version)

“… 4 - Energy (again)

The natural resources of the planet are finite and will not support the continuation of what you've been doing. We've been saying this for a decade. Watch for increased science and increased funding for alternate ways of creating electricity (finally). Watch for the very companies who have the most to lose being the ones who fund it. It is the beginning of a full realization that a change of thinking is at hand. You can take things from Gaia that are energy, instead of physical resources. We speak yet again about geothermal, about tidal, about wind. Again, we plead with you not to over-engineer this. For one of the things that Human Beings do in a technological age is to over-engineer simple things. Look at nuclear - the most over-engineered and expensive steam engine in existence!

Your current ideas of capturing energy from tidal and wave motion don't have to be technical marvels. Think paddle wheel on a pier with waves, which will create energy in both directions [waves coming and going] tied to a generator that can power dozens of neighborhoods, not full cities. Think simple and decentralize the idea of utilities. The same goes for wind and geothermal. Think of utilities for groups of homes in a cluster. You won't have a grid failure if there is no grid. This is the way of the future, and you'll be more inclined to have it sooner than later if you do this, and it won't cost as much….”

"Fast-Tracking" - Feb 8, 2014 (Kryon Channelling by Lee Carroll) - (Reference to Fukushima / H-bomb nuclear pollution and a warning about nuclear > 20 Min)

Obama unveils landmark regulations to combat climate change

Obama unveils landmark regulations to combat climate change
In a bid to combat climate change, US President Barack Obama announced the Clean Power Plan on Monday, marking the first time power plants have been targeted by mandatory regulations on carbon dioxide emissions in the US.
Google: Earthday 2013

Wednesday, May 22, 2013

Electricity from Thin Air: Using Nanotechnology to Capture the Energy Around Us

Yale Sciencetific, Kevin Boehm, May 11, 2013

Here, Wang holds fibers containing nanogenerators. Woven into clothing, these
 fibers could power devices using energy from our daily movements. Image courtesy
of Gary Meek.

Energy exists all around us — in the motion of a heartbeat, the fluorescent light in an office building, and even the flow of blood cells through the body. These individual units of energy are relatively small, but they are numerous. Dr. Zhong Lin Wang, Professor of Materials Science and Engineering at the Georgia Institute of Technology, has developed a way to harness this ambient energy. After months of work, Wang and his team have developed the very first hybrid cell, which is capable of harnessing both motion and sunlight. By tapping into multiple sources of readily available energy, the tiny cells have the potential to revolutionize the way we power our devices.

All of our electronic devices, from medical sensors to calculators, require a constant supply of energy. Currently, the most common methods are a plug and power supply or batteries, both of which are large and thus limit miniaturization. Since Wang’s cell is small enough to work on the nanoscale, it can readily be incorporated into biomedical sensors, cellphones, and other small electronics. The cell’s hybrid design is an advantage as well: Solar energy alone produces high voltages but is unsuitable for devices used in the dark, while energy from ambient motion is more consistent but is available on a smaller scale. By combining these sources, Wang’s device can provide a highly reliable supply of electricity.

Wang developed the motion-harnessing component of the hybrid cell in 2006. These devices, called nanogenerators, can collect energy at the micro- and nanoscales of motion by relying on piezoelectricity, the production of a current from compression or strain. To construct a nanogenerator, Wang grew a vertical array of microscopic zinc oxide (ZnO) wires on a flat base. On top of this, he placed an electrode with multiple pointed peaks that give it a “zig-zag” appearance. When the ZnO nanowires are bent out of their ordered formation, they generate small electric charges due to piezoelectricity. They then touch the zig-zag edge of the electrode, which collects all the electricity to produce a current. Due to its sensitivity, a nanogenerator can capture even vibrations of very small magnitudes, which can then be harnessed to power an object such as a pacemaker. In fact, nearly a milliwatt of mechanical energy exists in each cubic centimeter of the ambient environment.

Wang’s device relies on incredibly thin zinc oxide nanowires, which are arranged
 in a vertical array to harvest light and ambient motion. Image courtesy of
Nano Jet News.

Many devices, however, cannot be sustainably powered by nanogenerators alone; solar cells generate a larger voltage more practical for use in bright environments. To miniaturize solar power capture, Wang made use of an existing technology called a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). These cells are made by combining an anode with an electrolyte solution to form a semiconductor. First, a dye is applied to the anode to make it sensitive to light. When light strikes the dye, it releases electrons that flow through the anode toward the electrolyte solution, generating a current. Wang’s method employs the same principle on a miniaturized scale. Dye-coated ZnO nanowires serve as the anode, surrounded by the cell with a chamber of electrolytic fluid, forming a DSSC small enough to integrate with a nanogenerator.

After refining both technologies in collaboration with Dr. Xudong Wang of the University of Wisconsin-Madison, Wang has discovered a way to incorporate both nanogenerators and DSSCs into a device he terms a “hybrid cell.” The upper layer of the cell harvests light energy, and the nanogenerator below collects ambient motion. A single layer of silicon is sandwiched between the two and functions as an electrode for both devices, combining their energy into a single output. The two sources can be connected in parallel for higher currents and in series for higher voltages.

Even in the absence of light or motion, the circuit can still be completed. This is highly desirable because it generates electricity based on what is available. The hybrid cell captures what it can from the environment, but it is not limited by the absence of one source. Furthermore, although the nanogenerator alone produces a low voltage, combining it with the solar cell boosts the overall voltage of the device. These complementary sources allow the device to efficiently use energy resources in a variety of environments and situations.

Solar-powered calculators are a macroscopic example of
using ambient energy to power a device. Image courtesy of
Office Depot.

Hybrid energy harvesters are well suited to power implantable medical devices and other small electronics. In particular, Wang has proposed the installation of hybrid cells on sensing devices that gather information about the environment. This would replace traditional macroscopic sensing and provide more points of data for analysis. Using this richer data source could revolutionize fields such as environmental temperature studies, military reconnaissance, medical endoscopies, and underwater exploration.

However, there are many factors that must be addressed before this technology can be deemed dependable enough to power life-saving medical devices and other valuable electronics. One major problem is consistency, since solar energy cannot be harvested within an organism due to the lack of light. Additional complications arise from the ZnO wires in the nanogenerator. They are not all of the same length, resulting in some wires that are too short to touch the zig-zag electrode and others that are too long to flex and produce a current.

Wang and his team are working to address these challenges. To improve the nanogenerator component, Wang anticipates increasing the wire density to result in greater power output: If there are more wires per unit area of the substrate, there will be more electricity generated. Researchers are also investigating devices that can harness other sources of energy, such as thermal and chemical, and be incorporated into the cell. Biochemical energy — using enzymes to catalyze energy-yielding reactions — is particularly attractive due to its prevalence inside an organism where light energy is low.

A hybrid cell in series conformation showing how the nanogenerator and solar
 cell are combined. The layer of silicon in between the two portions functions as a
shared electrode. Image courtesy of Zhong Lin Wang.

The integration of two energy-harnessing methods is the true genius of Wang’s work. As the movement for self-powered electronics gains momentum, future combinations may harness thermal, biochemical, and other energy sources depending on the device’s location. Each energy source has its own limitations, but integrating multiple collectors into one device leads to efficiency, reliability, and sustainability. It may not be so long before our iPods are powered by the steps we take in our morning jogs.

About the Author: Kevin Boehm is a sophomore in Silliman College majoring in Biomedical Engineering. He is the vice president of the Yale Biomedical Engineering Society and conducts research in diagnostic radiology at the Yale School of Medicine.

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