Robber fly - Nature photographer Thomas Shahan specializes in amazing portraits of tiny insects. It isn't easy. Shahan says that this Robber Fly (Holcocephala fusca), for instance, is "skittish" and doesn't like its picture taken.

Eye-popping bug photos

Nature by Numbers (Video)

"A Summary" – Apr 2, 2011 (Kryon channeled by Lee Carroll) (Subjects: Religion, Shift of Human Consciousness, 2012, Intelligent/Benevolent Design, EU, South America, 5 Currencies, Water Cycle (Heat up, Mini Ice Ace, Oceans, Fish, Earthquakes ..), Middle East, Internet, Israel, Dictators, Palestine, US, Japan (Quake/Tsunami Disasters , People, Society ...), Nuclear Power Revealed, Hydro Power, Geothermal Power, Moon, Financial Institutes (Recession, Realign integrity values ..) , China, North Korea, Global Unity,..... etc.) -
"The Quantum Factor" – Apr 10, 2011 (Kryon channeled by Lee Carroll) (Subjects: Galaxies, Universe, Intelligent design, Benevolent design, Aliens, Nikola Tesla (Quantum energy), Inter-Planetary Travel, DNA, Genes, Stem Cells, Cells, Rejuvenation, Shift of Human Consciousness, Spontaneous Remission, Religion, Dictators, Africa, China, Nuclear Power, Sustainable Development, Animals, Global Unity.. etc.) - (Text Version)

“ … Here is another one. A change in what Human nature will allow for government. "Careful, Kryon, don't talk about politics. You'll get in trouble." I won't get in trouble. I'm going to tell you to watch for leadership that cares about you. "You mean politics is going to change?" It already has. It's beginning. Watch for it. You're going to see a total phase-out of old energy dictatorships eventually. The potential is that you're going to see that before 2013.

They're going to fall over, you know, because the energy of the population will not sustain an old energy leader ..."

(Live Kryon Channelings was given 7 times within the United Nations building.)

"Update on Current Events" – Jul 23, 2011 (Kryon channelled by Lee Carroll) - (Subjects: The Humanization of God, Gaia, Shift of Human Consciousness, 2012, Benevolent Design, Financial Institutes (Recession, System to Change ...), Water Cycle (Heat up, Mini Ice Ace, Oceans, Fish, Earthquakes ..), Nuclear Power Revealed, Geothermal Power, Hydro Power, Drinking Water from Seawater, No need for Oil as Much, Middle East in Peace, Persia/Iran Uprising, Muhammad, Israel, DNA, Two Dictators to fall soon, Africa, China, (Old) Souls, Species to go, Whales to Humans, Global Unity,..... etc.)

"Recalibration of Free Choice"– Mar 3, 2012 (Kryon Channelling by Lee Caroll) - (Subjects: (Old) Souls, Midpoint on 21-12-2012, Shift of Human Consciousness, Black & White vs. Color, 1 - Spirituality (Religions) shifting, Loose a Pope “soon”, 2 - Humans will change react to drama, 3 - Civilizations/Population on Earth, 4 - Alternate energy sources (Geothermal, Tidal (Paddle wheels), Wind), 5 – Financials Institutes/concepts will change (Integrity – Ethical) , 6 - News/Media/TV to change, 7 – Big Pharmaceutical company will collapse “soon”, (Keep people sick), (Integrity – Ethical) 8 – Wars will be over on Earth, Global Unity, … etc.) - (Text version)

“… 4 - Energy (again)

The natural resources of the planet are finite and will not support the continuation of what you've been doing. We've been saying this for a decade. Watch for increased science and increased funding for alternate ways of creating electricity (finally). Watch for the very companies who have the most to lose being the ones who fund it. It is the beginning of a full realization that a change of thinking is at hand. You can take things from Gaia that are energy, instead of physical resources. We speak yet again about geothermal, about tidal, about wind. Again, we plead with you not to over-engineer this. For one of the things that Human Beings do in a technological age is to over-engineer simple things. Look at nuclear - the most over-engineered and expensive steam engine in existence!

Your current ideas of capturing energy from tidal and wave motion don't have to be technical marvels. Think paddle wheel on a pier with waves, which will create energy in both directions [waves coming and going] tied to a generator that can power dozens of neighborhoods, not full cities. Think simple and decentralize the idea of utilities. The same goes for wind and geothermal. Think of utilities for groups of homes in a cluster. You won't have a grid failure if there is no grid. This is the way of the future, and you'll be more inclined to have it sooner than later if you do this, and it won't cost as much….”

"Fast-Tracking" - Feb 8, 2014 (Kryon Channelling by Lee Carroll) - (Reference to Fukushima / H-bomb nuclear pollution and a warning about nuclear > 20 Min)

Obama unveils landmark regulations to combat climate change

Obama unveils landmark regulations to combat climate change
In a bid to combat climate change, US President Barack Obama announced the Clean Power Plan on Monday, marking the first time power plants have been targeted by mandatory regulations on carbon dioxide emissions in the US.
Google: Earthday 2013

Tuesday, August 31, 2010

Volcano erupts in the Congo, Tuesday August 31 2010 

A Congolese soldier and guard for Virunga National
 Park looks down into a lava lake with a diameter of
300 metres boiling in the crater of Nyiragongo
volcano near Goma in eastern Congo
A volcano in Virunga National Park, in the Congo has erupted. The volcano erupted in eastern Congo, sending lava toward a national park, threatening wildlife, in the sparsely populated region.

Scientists recorded significant increased volcanic activity around Goma in the east of the country.

Half of the city was destroyed in 2002 after the nearest of two volcanoes, Mount Nyiragongo, erupted.

Sunday, August 29, 2010

Thousands flee Indonesia volcano on Sumatra

BBC News, 29 August 2010 Last updated at 04:19 GMT

Thousands of Indonesians have been forced to flee after a volcano erupted on the island of Sumatra.

Villagers were taken by surprise by the nighttime
Officials issued a red alert after Mount Sinabung began to spew lava shortly after midnight (1900 GMT).

Smoke and ash reportedly shot 1,500m into the air, and witnesses said they could see lava from the volcano from several miles away.

Mount Sinabung, some 60km (40 miles) south-west of Sumatra's main city Medan, has not erupted for 400 years.

The volcano had been pumping out smoke all day Saturday, but alert levels had not been raised, and local media reported that villagers had been taken by surprise.

The Medan Tribune quoted one local resident as saying he panicked and ran when he saw lava coming towards his him "like a ball of fire".

Priyadi Kardono from Indonesia's National Disaster Management Agency told the BBC that more than 10,000 people were being evacuated from nearby villages.

But he added that some had already gone home as volcanic activity was decreasing.

Surono, head of the nation's volcano disaster alert centre, told AFP news agency that the alert level had been raised to red because the situation was "clearly dangerous".

"Initially we thought the ash and smoke were triggered by rain but now we know the driving pressure was from magma," he said.

The Indonesian archipelago lies on the Pacific "Ring of Fire" and has at least 129 active volcanoes.

Nature by Numbers

Saturday, August 28, 2010

Volcano erupts in Russia's Far East

The Voice of Russia, 28, 2010 14:27 Moscow Time

Volcano. ©

The Klyuchevsky volcano in the Russian Far East has sent a plume of smoke and ash billowing 1 km up into the sky and hot lava streaming down its southwestern slope.

More than 100 small quakes have been registered on and around Eurasia's biggest active volcano.

The 4,750 m giant usually erupts once every five or six years.

2 killed, 40 injured in 5.9-magnitude earthquake in northern Iran 2010-08-28 06:07:10

TEHRAN, Aug. 28 (Xinhua) -- A magnitude-5.9 earthquake that hit the city of Damghan in Iran's northern Semnan province at 1923 GMT Friday night has killed 2 people and injured 40 others, state TV IRINN reported.

The earthquake, at a depth of only 7 km, was 35.5 degrees North Latitude and 54.5 degrees East Longitude, according to the Iranian Seismological Center's website.

The epicenter of the quake, 278 km to the east of Iran's capital Tehran, is in a desert area of the Semnan Province which is called Barandazeh Mianeh.

A few villages to the south of Damghan have been affected, and the quake was felt in Tehran's eastern part.

Iran, including its capital Tehran, sits astride several major fault-lines in the earth's crust, and is prone to frequent earthquakes.

Moderate quakes sometimes cause huge damage in some regions of the country because of the poor construction.

A 5.7-magnitude earthquake that struck on July 30 the city of Torbat-e Heydarieh in Iran's northeastern Khorasan Razavi Province injured at least 170 people.

On July 20, an earthquake measuring 5.8 magnitude that hit southern Iran's Fars Province near the Persian Gulf killed at least one and injured 32 others.

Local media reports said the last deadly quake in Iran occurred in September 2008, when a magnitude-6.1 earthquake killed at least 7 people and injured almost 47 others in the southern Hormozgan province.

The worst quake happened in recent years was a magnitude-6.3 one, which struck the southern city of Bam in December 2003, killing 31,000 people, about a quarter of the city's population, and destroying an ancient mud-built citadel.

Some Iranian officials suggest to move the capital from Tehran to some other places. The idea of shifting the capital away from Tehran is not something new, and related preliminary planning was done in the late 1980s and again in the early 1990s.

Thursday, August 26, 2010

Scientists create 'dry water' that can be used to soak up carbon dioxide

Daily Mail, By DAILY MAIL REPORTER, 26th August 2010

It sounds like a contradiction in terms, but scientists have created 'dry water'.

Each particle of dry water contains a water droplet surrounded by a sandy silica coating. In fact, 95 per cent of dry water is 'wet' water.

One of its key properties is a powerful ability to absorb gases.

A sample of 'dry water' which looks like powdered sugar and is expected to make a big commercial splash

Scientists believe dry water could be used to combat global warming by soaking up and trapping the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide.

Tests show that it is more than three times better at absorbing carbon dioxide as ordinary water.

Dry water may also prove useful for storing methane and expanding the energy source potential of the natural gas.

Dr Ben Carter, from the University of Liverpool, presented his research on dry water at the 240th National Meeting of the American Chemical Society in Boston.

He said: 'There's nothing else quite like it. Hopefully, we may see dry water making waves in the future.'

Another application demonstrated by Dr Carter's team was using dry water as a catalyst to speed up reactions between hydrogen and maleic acid.

This produces succinic acid, a key raw material widely used to make drugs, food ingredients, and consumer products.

Usually hydrogen and maleic acid have to be stirred together to make succinic acid. But this is not necessary when using dry water particles containing maleic acid, making the process greener and more energy efficient.

'If you can remove the need to stir your reactions, then potentially you're making considerable energy savings,' said Dr Carter.

The technology could be adapted to create 'dry' powder emulsions, mixtures of two or more unblendable liquids such as oil and water, the researchers believe.

Dry emulsions could make it safer and easier to store and transport potentially harmful liquids.

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Mysteriously, Solar Activity Found to Influence Behavior of Radioactive Materials On Earth

POPSCI, By Rebecca Boyle, 08.25.2010

The Sun / NASA

How's this for spooky action at a distance? The sun, at 93 million miles away, appears to be influencing the decay of radioactive elements inside the Earth, researchers say.

Spotting Sunspots / Big Bear Solar
Observatory/NJIT (Earth is slightly 

smaller than thewhole sunspot
including the dark daisy petal-
like penumbra)
Given what we know about radioactivity and solar neutrinos, this should not happen. It's so bizarre that a couple scientists at Stanford and Purdue universities believe there's a chance that a previously unknown solar particle is behind it all.

The big news, according to Stanford's news service, is that the core of the sun -- where nuclear reactions produce neutrinos -- spins more slowly than the surface. This phenomenon might explain changing rates of radioactive decay scientists observed at two separate labs. But it does not explain why the decay-change happens. That violates the laws of physics as we know them.

While examining data on radioactive isotopes, Purdue researchers found disagreement in measured decay rates, which goes against the long-accepted belief that these rates are constant. While searching for an explanation, the scientists came across other research that noted seasonal variation in these decay rates.

Apparently radioactivity is stronger in winter than in summer.

A 2006 solar flare suggested the sun was involved somehow. Purdue University nuclear engineer Jere Jenkins noticed the decay rate of a medical isotope dropped during the solar flare, and what's more, the decline started before the flare did. The latter finding could be useful for protecting satellites and astronauts -- if there is a correlation between decay rates and solar activity, changed decay rates could provide early warning of an impending solar storm.

But while that's good news for astronauts, it's bad news for physics.

Peter Sturrock, Stanford emeritus professor of applied physics and an expert on the inner workings of the sun, told the researchers to look for evidence that the changes in radioactive decay vary with the rotation of the sun. The answer was yes, suggesting that neutrinos are responsible.

But how could the nebulous neutrino, which does not interact with normal matter, be affecting decay rates? No one knows. It might be a previously unknown particle instead.

As Jenkins puts it, "What we're suggesting is that something that doesn't really interact with anything is changing something that can't be changed."

Though disaster movies would have you believe otherwise, we should not yet worry about solar neutrinos warming the core of the Earth. But perhaps we should worry that our understanding of the sun -- and perhaps our understanding of nuclear physics in general -- is a lot weaker than we thought.

New Biofuel Cell Demonstrated; Could Be Filled With Sugary Soft Drinks to Power Devices

POPSCI, By Clay Dillow, 08.25.2010

The Coke-Powered Cell Phone Designer Daizi Zheng's concept for a soda-powered cell phone (completely unrelated to the ACS researchers' fuel cell, but cool to think about). Daizi Zheng via aarting

Wouldn't it be convenient if Red Bull could recharge your phone just as it recharges you? Researchers at the National Meeting of the American Chemical Society today revealed the creation of a new breed of battery-like device that's more like the mitochondria that fuel biological cells than the anode-cathode batteries that charge our devices. As such, it could power our cell phones or other portable electronics with sugary drinks or other energy-storing media like vegetable oils.


The technology is actually as old as the beginnings of life itself, but the research represents the first working fuel cell that produces power in such a way. The new biofuel cell borrows from the mitochondria that power our bodies' own cells. Mitochondria, you'll remember from high school biology, are the powerhouses of the cell, converting sugars or fats into adenosine triphosphate -- or ATP -- which stores the energy until the cell needs to burn it.

The new fuel cell is still in prototype, but the researchers have demonstrated it in the lab. It essentially consists of a thin layer of mitochondria pressed between two electrodes, one of which is gas-permeable. In tests, cooking oil byproducts and sugar both produced electricity.

Naturally, such a power source would be useful in myriad applications. Less likely than fueling up laptops with energy drinks are uses like powering small wireless sensors. Besides, Red Bull is more expensive by the gallon than gasoline.

Wednesday, August 25, 2010

Space-based detector could find anti-universe

Reuters, by Robert Evans, GENEVA | Wed Aug 25, 2010 11:31am EDT

Staff attempt to load the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) detector into a U.S. Air Force Galaxy aircraft during last preparations at Cointrin Airport in Geneva August 25, 2010. (Credit: REUTERS/Denis Balibouse)

(Reuters) - A huge particle detector to be mounted on the International Space Station next year could find evidence for the anti-universe often evoked in science fiction, physicists said on Wednesday.

Speaking as the 8.5-tonne Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) machine was being loaded into a huge U.S. Air Force cargo plane at Geneva airport, they said the 20-year research program would bring a huge step forward in understanding the cosmos.

"If there is an anti-universe, perhaps out there beyond the edge of our universe, our space-based detector may well be able to bring us signs of its existence," U.S. scientist and Nobel laureate Samuel Ting told a news conference.

"The cosmos is the ultimate laboratory."

Ting, a 73-year-old professor at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, is principal investigator for the project, which involves some 500 scientists and technicians round the globe.

Cosmologists say matter and anti-matter -- which annihilate each other on contact, releasing energy -- must have been made in equal quantities by the Big Bang 13.7 billion years ago. But the universe that emerged is overwhelmingly made up of matter.

Scientists hope the AMS will find clues to what happened to anti-matter, and whether there are other places that are almost entirely anti-matter, existing on the edge of the known universe and a mirror image of it and everything in it, including life.


The primary purpose of the detector, which has a super-powered magnet at its core, is to hunt another quarry -- the mysterious "dark," or invisible, matter that alongside dark energy makes up nearly 95 per cent of the known universe.

Scientists also hope the AMS will provide detailed knowledge of energy-charged cosmic rays -- an unexplored realm of research that can only be carried out in space.

But it may also answer questions not yet asked.

"It could turn up many surprises," said Roberto Battiston, an Italian physicist on the team. "Never have we been so aware of our ignorance -- we know that we know nothing about what makes up all but 5 per cent of our universe."

John Ellis, a British theoretical physicist described by Ting as the intellectual godfather of the project, said his aim had always been "to think of things for the experimenters to look for and hope they find something else."

The U.S. Super Galaxy aircraft is transporting the AMS to the Kennedy Space Center in Florida for further tests.

In February it will be loaded onto a space shuttle and delivered to the space station on a flight specially approved by the U.S. Congress after heavy lobbying by Ting and colleagues.

The AMS has been developed by an international team working at CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research near Geneva, whose Large Hadron Collider (LHC) particle accelerator is also aiming to solve mysteries of the cosmos.

The AMS project's costs, currently estimated at around $2 billion, are being covered by 16 countries, mostly in Europe but also including the United States and China.

(Editing by Jonathan Lynn and Kevin Liffey)

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Big Bear Solar Observatory Snaps the Most Detailed Pic of a Sunspot Ever

POPSCI, By Clay Dillow, 08.24.2010

Spotting Sunspots / Big Bear Solar Observatory/NJIT
(Earth is slightly smaller than the whole sunspot including
the dark daisy petal-like penumbra)

Researchers at Big Bear Solar Observatory have tuned their adaptive optics array and achieved first light, capturing this image of a sunspot that is now the most detailed ever captured in visible light. The image was captured with Big Bear’s New Solar Telescope (NST), a brand new instrument (as the name implies) with a resolution of just 50 miles on the sun’s surface.

The NST is the precursor to an even-larger telescope, the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST), which will be constructed over the next decade, allowing Big Bear researchers to build a new kind of adaptive optics system known as multi-conjugate adaptive optics, that should provide them with a clear, distortion-free means of observing the sun from Earth in unrivaled detail.

In the meantime, NST will collect incredibly detailed images of solar phenomena like this that should help researchers understand the complexities of solar weather and its impact on the space climate in our neighborhood of the solar system.

Related Article:

Tuesday, August 24, 2010

2004 Dodge Pickup Runs on 100% Water

Inventor Frederick W. Wood, and his associate, David Seigler, from Future Energy Concepts, Inc., give a video tour of the pickup truck that they've converted to run on nothing but hydroxy gas, electrolyzed on-board, and on-demand, via a super-efficient electrolysis (from water) method they have developed. Their system produces 55 liters per minute on 55 amps. The truck recently completed a road trip of more than 3000 miles, running on this set-up.

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Monday, August 23, 2010

Incredible image of Moon orbiting Earth taken by Nasa probe 114 million miles away

Daily Mail, By DAILY MAIL REPORTER, 23rd August 2010

It is an image that should put us firmly in our place.

Set against the inky blackness of space our Earth can be seen with the smaller Moon in orbiting around it from a distance of around 114 million miles.

Taken by Nasa's Messenger deep space probe the incredible image illustrates how insignificant we really are.

Earth can be seen at a distance of around 114million miles in an image taken by Nasa's Messenger spacecraft. (Enlarge)

A beautiful, thought-provoking picture, this image was actually taken as part of Messenger's mission to search for vulcanoids, small rocky objects that scientists believe exist in orbits between Mercury and the Sun.


No vulcanoids have yet been detected, the Messenger spacecraft is in a unique position to look for smaller and fainter objects than have ever before been possible.

Messenger searches for vulcanoids when the spacecraft's orbit brings it closest to the Sun.

It follows a path through the inner solar system, including one flyby of Earth, two flybys of Venus, and three flybys of Mercury.

Messenger and is using gravity from Earth and Venus to slightly alter its orbit over time before it moves into Mercury's orbit in March 2011.

Related Article:

Hubble Telescope captures photo of spooky nebula in deep space, Editor: Tang Danlu

This spooky image of a tiny nebula known as IRAS 05437+2502 was recently released by the Hubble Space Telescope, but perhaps even more eerie than the wispy, ghost-like appearance of the little-studied star forming region is the boomerang-like light crowning the nebula. Though the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) first discovered the nebula in 1983, astronomers have no clue what is lighting up this glowing object. (Photo Source:

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Sunday, August 22, 2010

Inuit villages sue to stop seismic tests for oil, gas

Above the Arctic Circle in Canada near Greenland, five Inuit villages have won a court order that blocks a German icebreaker from conducting seismic tests of an underwater region that abounds with marine life — and possibly with oil, gas and minerals.

The Seattle Times, By Renee Schoof, McClatchy Newspapers, August 21, 2010

Inuit men are hunting for fish and seals (CNN)

WASHINGTON — Above the Arctic Circle in Canada near Greenland, five Inuit villages have won a court order that blocks a German icebreaker from conducting seismic tests of an underwater region that abounds with marine life — and possibly with oil, gas and minerals.

For the villagers who live in this mostly treeless region of fjords, icebergs and polar bears, the case was a victory that forces the national and territorial governments to consult them over the use of their homeland.

The decision comes as Canada, Alaska and other Arctic regions are deciding whether to allow oil and gas development in Arctic waters that are covered by ice for nine or more months each year.

"We've been saying all along that we aren't anti-development, we aren't anti-science," said Okalik Eegeesiak, the president of Qikiqtani Inuit Association, which asked the court of Nunavut Territory to block the geological study. "But we want to be involved, to be sure our environment and our wildlife are protected as much as possible."

Many Inuits depend on hunting, fishing and trapping to feed their families, both for cultural reasons and because food shipped above the Arctic Circle is so expensive. After the Canadian government told the people on Lancaster Sound — the villagers' traditional hunting area — that it planned to conduct the seismic tests, everyone who attended meetings in May opposed the testing, Eegeesiak said.

They were concerned about the immediate impact of the tests on wildlife, but the BP oil blowout also was on everyone's mind, she said.

"We saw every day on TV how difficult it was to contain the spill in the Gulf of Mexico," she said, noting that a spill in the ice and minus-40-degree temperature of winter would be impossible to stop.

Canada, like the U.S., is wrestling with how quickly to push into the Arctic for oil and gas.

Climate change is happening much faster at the high latitudes of the Arctic, giving more opportunity for drilling in ice-free water. The world's addiction to oil, meanwhile, is driving development deeper into the ocean, in places such as the Gulf of Mexico, and into the far north of Alaska and Canada.

Quite possibly, Lancaster Sound, a place that teems with wildlife, will be spared. The government of Canada announced in December that it planned several years of study to determine whether to make the region a marine conservation area.

Most of the world's tusked narwhals and some 40 percent of its beluga whales travel through the sound and feed and give birth in its waters. Rare bowhead whales are there, too, along with many walruses and seals. Millions of birds of many species nest nearby in great concentrations, including ivory gulls, phalaropes and snow geese.

Tourists visit to see the birds, whales, polar bears and icebergs, ride dog sleds over the ice or hunt for musk ox and polar bears.

Canada's minister in charge of environmental affairs and parks, Jim Prentice, said in July that the government remained committed to the idea of a marine park but wanted to go ahead with the seismic mapping to help determine its boundaries.

"The mapping of undersea geology is essential to making better decisions on land use and economic development in the north," Leona Aglukkaq, who represents Nunavut in Parliament, said when the government announced the seismic survey.

On Aug. 8, however, the Nunavut Court of Justice blocked the seismic mapping in Lancaster Sound a day before the icebreaker Polarstern was scheduled to begin its work.

Wegener officials have said the seismic study planned on the Polarstern wasn't the type needed for targeted oil and gas explorations.

The Pew Environment Group, which advocates creating the marine-conservation area, argued that seismic testing wasn't necessary to create a marine park. The Inuit association said underwater mapping for a park already was done in 1989. The Inuit have rights under their land agreement with Canada to continue hunting, fishing and trapping and to be part of decision-making.

"This is a controversy about oil and gas," said Scott Highleyman, the director of Pew's Arctic program. "Now that the judge has ruled, we're looking forward to working constructively with both the Inuit and the government on creation of a park in Lancaster Sound — something we are all in agreement about — to prevent this kind of conflict in the future."

Meanwhile, the next move on Arctic drilling in Alaska is expected soon.

The Interior Department is expected to announce whether it will make any changes to the Bush administration's five-year plan for offshore drilling, which runs from 2007 to 2012.

The Obama administration must decide whether it will sell any more leases in the Beaufort and Chukchi seas, whether to withdraw Bristol Bay from potential leasing and whether to leave in place 215 leases that were sold to oil companies for the Chukchi Sea in 2008.

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